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在实验室为什么穿白大褂?

2020-03-06
实验室科研人员穿白大褂,似乎是一件约定俗成的事,统一制服很容易理解,但是为什么要选择白色呢?


实验室使用白大褂作为工作服至少有一百多年的历史了,所以作为一个传统,需要考虑当时的历史原因。


19世纪中叶的欧洲,医生和护士多由传教士担任,他们一般穿着灰色或者黑色的长袍。然而,由于那时还没有细菌和消毒的概念,再加上黑灰色不显脏……大批的病人因感染而死,却没人知道原因。

这时候,一个法国人,路易斯·巴斯德,“微生物之父”,他发现了细菌是各种传染病的起因和媒介,意识到许多疾病是由微生物引起,由此建立起了细菌理论,并强调医生要使用消毒法。因为白色是最容易被污染的颜色。只要一点儿血污或灰尘,纯净的白色便显得难看。这促进了白大褂的清洗和消毒工作,一定程度上起到保护病人的作用。

于是,白色长袍就流行起来。

在当时,医院和实验室并没有完全区分开来。再加上当年的实验还是比较危险的,也很容易弄一些奇怪的东西到衣服上,于是呢,就需要一种穿在正常的衣服外面的保护衣服的东西。而且这个东西还需要很容易发现脏,容易清洗,甚至要经过高温消毒之类的比较恶劣的程序。这样白大褂就是一个不错的选择了,白色上面有脏东西可以比较方便看到,经过反复清洗液不会掉色,因为本来就没有染色。然后这个传统就被继承了下来。

到现在,仍然有很多实验室的场合需要穿这种保护服,保护衣服,也保护暴露的四肢,这属于劳动保护的一部分,是否需要这样的防护要看具体所从事的工作。这个环境下很容易理解白大褂的作用。

当然现在实验的环境完全变了,很多实验场合已经不需要这类保护,所以在一些场合并不是很必要的。不过在管理相对严格的场合,统一着装仍然是必须的,于是有各式各样的工作服。而且即使是需要工作服的实验室的工作,随着具体工作环境对颜色的要求不同,对颜色和服装样式也有不同,已经不一定是白大褂了。

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